How common is HIV in Africa? Its treatment and prevention.

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HIV, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is a life-threatening virus that is spread primarily through sexual contact and through bodily fluids, such as blood. HIV is of particular concern in Africa, where it remains one of the leading causes of death in adults of working age. Over the years, HIV prevalence has declined in Africa, however, certain countries still have unusually high levels of infection.

Prevalence of HIV  in Africa

In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV is highly prevalent and is responsible for more than 71% of global HIV infections. Uganda, Malawi, South Africa, and Zimbabwe are particularly affected by HIV. According to the World Health Organisation, an estimated 20 million people in sub-Saharan Africa are living with HIV in 2017. This means that 5.9% of adults in the area are HIV positive. It is estimated that the HIV prevalence in 2017 among adults aged 15-49 was 3.2%.

Use of antiretroviral therapy

In terms of treatment, there are a number of antiretroviral treatments (ARVs) for people living with HIV in Africa. ARVs are important in reducing the chance of progression to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) and reducing the chances of transmission from mother to child. In most countries in Africa, the majority of people living with HIV are receiving ARVs, though there is still a large gap between the number of people needing the drugs and the number receiving them.

Raising the awareness

For prevention, the UN has outlined strategies for reducing the spread of HIV in Africa, with a special focus on sexual health education. The strategies include raising awareness of safe sex practices and encouraging regular testing. Other strategies, such as voluntary counseling and testing services, male circumcision, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), have proven effective in reducing HIV transmission in certain African countries.

The importance of antiretroviral therapy

In the fight against HIV and AIDS, the use of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in Africa has become increasingly important in recent years. ARV treatments can be used to treat existing infections and can help to prevent the spread of the virus in high-risk populations. This essay will discuss the potential of ARV therapy to reduce rates of infection and mortality in Africa, as well as some of the challenges and limitations of the therapy.

Reduce the transmission of the virus

ARV therapy has been instrumental in stemming the tide of HIV infection in Africa. In the early 2000s, ARV treatment slowed the progression of HIV-related illness and mortality at an unprecedented rate. It is estimated that, if properly implemented, a full course of ARV treatment can reduce mortality from HIV/AIDS in Africa by up to 70%. In addition, ARV therapies can reduce the risk of transmission of the virus from an infected mother to her newborn, thus helping to reduce the spread of HIV in Africa even further.

Advantageous outcome improved

Other benefits of ARV therapies in Africa include improved quality of life for those living with HIV and improved access to care. ARV treatments are both cost-effective and affordable, meaning more people in Africa have access to these treatments. In addition, the use of ARV treatments can reduce the societal stigma around HIV and AIDS, leading to an overall improvement in social attitudes toward the virus.

Insight into dolutegravir

Dolutegravir, medicinally described as (2S)-2-[(7S)-6-[(2R,4S)-4-[[[(2R)-2-amino-4-cyclohexyl-4-oxo-3-thietanyl]acetyl]amino]-5-{[(1S)-1-(hydroxymethyl)-3-phenylpropyl]-amino}pentanoyl]amino]-3-methyl hexanoic acid, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat HIV-1.

Biochemical mode of action

Dolutegravir is an integrase inhibitor—a drug that prevents HIV from replicating. Its integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) activity inhibits the process in which HIV inserts its genetic material into a human cell. As a result, HIV cannot replicate and infect other cells upon contact. This drug prevents both the spread of infection and the growth of existing infections.

Dose of its administration

Specifically, dolutegravir 50mg tablets are a once-a-day antiretroviral meant to be taken by mouth. The dosages of dolutegravir vary depending on several factors, but the common dosage for adults is one dolutegravir 50mg tablet once daily. It is important to take this drug exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider and not miss any doses.

Effects to be taken as a precaution

The most common side effects of dolutegravir include headache, nausea, and diarrhea. A rare but serious side effect is the development of a new virus called the “integrase-associated resistance-associated mutation” or IAS-RA. Taking dolutegravir may also increase the risk of liver problems, anemia, or low white blood cell count.

Powerful antiretroviral drug

Dolutegravir is a powerful and potent oral antiretroviral that can be used to reduce the amount of HIV-1 in the infected person’s blood. Research has also found that dolutegravir is able to reduce the risk of resistance to other antiretrovirals. As a result, dolutegravir is a reliable HIV treatment that has been approved by the FDA and, when taken as prescribed and monitored closely by a healthcare professional, is an effective way to manage and control HIV infection in adults.

Conclusion

The HIV epidemic in Africa is still a major public health issue, and it is important that governments and populations remain committed to prevention and treatment strategies that are proven to work. There has been some progress in reducing the infection rate, however, there is still room for improvement. Despite the challenges posed by HIV in Africa, with the right kind of action, there is hope that the infection rate can be further reduced and eventually brought to an end.